The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, It lasted from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and  its mature age is considered to be from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations. For IAS Exam, IVC is one of the most important topics in Ancient History, Students should be well prepared with the factual part of the topic for IAS Prelims. Indus Valley Civilization is also a part of IAS Mains GS paper 1 syllabus.


  • Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization 

  • IVC was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. It is also known as Harappan Civilization
  • Pre-Harappan civilization has been found at Mehrgarh, Pakistan which shows the first evidence of cotton cultivation.
  • Geographically, this civilization covered Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Western Uttar Pradesh. It extended from Sutkagengor (in Baluchistan) in the West to Alamgirpur (Western UP) in the East; and from Mandu (Jammu) in the North to Daimabad (Ahmednagar, Maharashtra) in the South. Some Indus Valley sites have also been found in as far away as Afghanistan and Turkmenistan.





Harappa Daya Ram Sahini in 1921 Its is the most famous site of Harappan civilization .It is  located on the bank of river Ravi in Montgomery district of Punjab (Pakistan).
  • Bullock carts
  • Sandstone statues of Human anatomy
  • Granaries
Mohenjodaro (Mound of Dead) R.D Banerjee in 1922 This is another famous IVC site , located on the Bank of river Indus in Larkana district of Punjab (Pakistan).
  • Granary
  • Bronze dancing girl
  • Steatite statue of beard man
  • Great bath
  • A piece of woven cotton
  • Seal of Pasupathi Mahadeva
Sutkagendor Stein in 1929 It was located in Balochistan province, Pakistan on Dast river. This was the western most  archeological site
  • This place was a trade point  between Harappan civilization and Babylon
Chanhudaro N.G Majumdar in 1931 It is located in Sindh on the Indus river
  • Footprint of a dog chasing a cat
  • Terracotta cart models
  • Male spear thrower or dancer - a broken statue
  • Bead makers shop
Amri N.G Majumdar in 1935 This is also Located on the bank of Indus river near Hydrabad(Pakistan)
  • Antelope evidence
Kalibangan Ghose in 1953 It is located in Rajasthan on the bank of Ghaggar river
  • Fire altar
  • Wooden plough
  • Camel bones
Lothal R.Rao in 1953 It was a busy Industrial center. Gujarat on Bhogva river near Gulf of Cambay
  • First manmade port
  • bronze celts, chisels, spearheads and ornaments
  • Beads and shells.
  • Chess playing
  • Dockyard and boats
  • Rice husk
  • wells
  • Fire altars
Surkotada J.P Joshi in 1964 It is said that Surkotada could have functioned as a regional capital .It is located in Kutch Gujarat
  • Bones of horses
  • Beads
Banawali R.S Bisht in 1974 Hisar district of Haryana
  • S shaped Jars
  • Beads
  • Barley
  • Evidence of both pre-Harappan and Harappan culture
Dholavira R.S Bisht in 1985 Gujarat in Rann of Kachchh
  • Water harnessing system
  • Water reservoir
  • Used stones instead of Bricks


IVC IS an important topic, aspirants need to be sure that they go through all the important factual details and make a note of it. It can also be helpful if you make some notes out of it. To read more articles on History click here