UPSC Mains Paper GS 4 Paper has ethics subject .Emotional Intellegence is on of the major factors in perosality. Its very important to have emotional quotent which helps an IAS officer to understand the public. This article will give you details Emotional Intelligence, which is a important part of UPSC mains Syllabus. And UPSC aspirants should understand this subject properly.


  • What is Emotional Intelligence
  • Gardner's theory
  • Three Theories
  • The 3 Main Models


Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions. Some researchers suggest that emotional intelligence can be learned and strengthened, while others claim it's an inborn characteristic.

Emotional Quotient - EQ is a measure of one’s EI i.e. through a standardized test, one’s awareness of emotions in relation to self and others is known.





EQ is a measure of a person's level of emotional intelligence IQ is a score derived from one of several standardized tests designed to assess an individual's intelligence.
EQ is centred on abilities such as identifying emotions, evaluating how others feel, controlling one's own emotions, perceiving how others feel, using emotions to facilitate social communication and relating to others. IQ represents abilities such as visual and spatial processing, knowledge of the world, fluid reasoning, working memory and short-term memory and quantitative reasoning



  • Gardner argues that people have several "separate" intellectual capacities, each of which deserves to be called an intelligence. According to Gardner's work, there are seven intelligences. They are:
    • Linguistic intelligence
    • Musical intelligence
    • Logical-mathematical intelligence
    • Bodily kinesthetic intelligence
    • Naturalist intelligence
    • Interpersonal intelligence


  • 1988
    • Reuven Bar-On Model (1988) - emotional intelligence as a mixed intelligence, consisting of cognitive ability and personality aspects.
  • 1997
    • Mayer and Salovey's (1997) Four-Branch Model  -emotional intelligence is a cognitive ability.
  • 2001
    • Goleman's (2001) Emotional Intelligence Competencies - emotional intelligence as a mixed intelligence involving cognitive ability and personality aspects.

Bar-On's Model of Emotional Intelligence

Reuven Bar-On (1988) has retained emotional intelligence in the framework of personality theory, specifically a model of well-being. Bar-On's model of emotional intelligence relates to the potential for performance and success, instead of performance or success itself, and is considered process-oriented rather than outcome-oriented . It focuses on a range of emotional and social abilities, including the ability to be aware of, understand, and express oneself, the ability to be aware of, understand, and relate to others, the ability to deal with strong emotions, and the ability to adapt to change and solve problems of a social or personal nature In his model, Bar-On summaries have five components of emotional intelligence that include intrapersonal, interpersonal, adaptability, stress management, and general mood. Bar-On postulates that emotional intelligence develops over time and that it can be improved through training, programming, and therapy



Mayer and Salovey

"Emotional Intelligence includes the ability to engage in sophisticated information processing about one’s own and others’ emotions and the ability to use this information as a guide to thinking and behavior. That is, individuals high in emotional intelligence pay attention to, use, understand, and manage emotions, and these skills serve adaptive functions that potentially benefit themselves and others".

Mayer and Salovey have a 16 step developmental model of emotional intelligence from childhood to adulthood. It comprises four branches:

  • The ability to perceive emotions in oneself and others accurately.
  • The ability to use emotions to facilitate thinking.
  • The ability to understand emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by emotions.
  • The ability to manage emotions so as to attain specific goals.


2016 model.

  • Identify deceptive or dishonest emotional expressions.
  • Discriminate accurate vs. inaccurate emotional expressions.
  • Understand how emotions are displayed depending on context and culture.
  • Express emotions accurately when desired.
  • Perceive emotional content in the environment, visual arts, and music.
  • Perceive emotions in other people through their vocal cues, facial expression, language, and behaviour.
  • Identify emotions in one’s own physical states, feelings, and thoughts.
  • Select problems based on how one’s ongoing emotional state might facilitate cognition.
  • Leverage mood swings to generate different cognitive perspectives.
  • Prioritize thinking by directing attention according to present feeling.
  • Generate emotions as a means to relate to experiences of another person.
  • Generate emotions as an aid to judgment and memory.
  • Recognize cultural differences in the evaluation of emotions.
  • Understand how a person might feel in the future or under certain conditions (affective forecasting).
  • Recognize likely transitions among emotions such as from anger to satisfaction.
  • Understand complex and mixed emotions.
  • Differentiate between moods and emotions.
  • Appraise the situations that are likely to elicit emotions.
  • Determine the antecedents, meanings, and consequences of emotions.
  • Label emotions and recognize relations among them.
  • Effectively manage others’ emotions to achieve a desired outcome.
  • Effectively manage one’s own emotions to achieve a desired outcome.
  • Evaluate strategies to maintain, reduce, or intensify an emotional response.
  • Monitor emotional reactions to determine their reasonableness.
  • Engage with emotions if they are helpful; disengage if not.
  • Stay open to pleasant and unpleasant feelings, as needed, and to the information they convey.


Goleman: A Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence

Another of the most popular models of Emotional Intelligence is that of the Mixed Model. Developed by Daniel Goleman, this model of Emotional Intelligence is heavily focused on defining Emotional Intelligence using a vast array of skills and competencies that affect leadership performance. Thus, the Mixed Model is often used in a corporate or other professional setting to train and evaluate management potential and skills. The Mixed Model outlines five essential Emotional Intelligence constructs:

Self-awareness - Interpreted as recognizing one's own emotions, strengths and weaknesses, goals, motivations, and values. This element of the Mixed Model also includes the ability to recognize one's impact on others, and using a certain level of intuition to guide their decisions regarding how they alter the emotions of others.

Self-regulation - This involves recognizing one's own negative or disruptive emotions and impulses and controlling or redirecting them to a productive or positive purpose or feeling. This element also includes the individual's capacity to adapt to changing circumstances.

Social scale - This construct simply utilizes the first two elements in such a way as to manage relationships with those around you to move people in the direction you want them to go. In simple terms, this might include a manager finding a new way to motivate an employee or someone communicating their positive attributes on a first date to secure a second date.

Empathy - Though sometimes confused with sympathy, empathy is actually an entirely different process. In sympathy, one typically feels sorry or badly regarding a challenge or problem another person is having. When a person practices empathy, they are able to personally identify with the challenges of another, and to consider the feelings of others when making decisions. Empathy often serves pragmatic and emotional purposes.

Motivation - In the Mixed Model of Emotional Intelligence, it is theorized that a person with a high EQ will be able to successfully motivate themselves to achieve their goals. Essentially, this accounts not only for goals with pragmatic results, (such as a job promotion), but also achievement for the sake of achievement. The Mixed Model requires an individual with high Emotional Intelligence to seek success for no purpose other than because it is success.





Ability Model

This model was developed by Peter Salovey of Yale University and John Mayer of University of New Hampshire.

  • Perceiving emotions: understanding nonverbal signs such as other peoples body language or facial expressions (Salovey & Birnbaum)
  • Reasoning with Emotions: using emotions to promote thinking and cognitive activity (Salovey & Birnbaum)
  • Understanding Emotions: Interpreting emotions of others around you, being able to recognize people display emotions of anger when they might not be angry at you but rather the situation

Managing Emotions: regulating emotions, responding appropriately and consistently

Mixed Model This model was developed by David Goleman. Golemans model uses "The Five Components" to efficiently describe emotional intelligence.

  • Self-Awareness (confidence, recognition of feelings)
  • Self-Regulation (self-control, trustworthiness, adaptability)
  • Motivation (drive, commitment, initiative, optimism)
  • Empathy (understanding others feelings, diversity, political awareness)
  • Social Skills (leadership, conflict management, communication skills)
Trait model This model was developed by Konstantin Vasily Petrides. He defined the trait model as "a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the lower levels of personality."

  • Ones understanding and perception of their emotions

The use of personality framework to investigate trait emotional intelligence




The above article speaks about Emotional Intellegence which helps the aspirat to understand how different standards of ethics are maintaned at the country level as well as on global level. to read more of ethics topic Click here