The topic Geomorphic process includes, exogenic, endogenic processes, diastrophism, volcanism, weathering, This topic is essential for IAS exam as a lot of Prelims and mains questions can be asked from this topic. Geography one of the major subjest in UPSC prelims and is almost 50% of the of UPSC Mains GS paper 1. this topic forms the base of Geography subject. Sot for all the IAS Aspirants it is important to make proper notes of factula as well as conceptual part.


  • Geomorphoc Process
  • Endogenic Forces
  • Exogenic forces
  • Volcano
  • Earth quakes
  • Weathirng


The formation and deformation of landforms on the surface of the earth are a continuous process which is due to the continuous influence of external and internal forces. The internal and external forces causing stresses and chemical action on earth materials and bringing about changes in the configuration of the surface of the earth are known as geomorphic processes.


The agents which help in the movement of earths material is calles as Geomorphic agent . Thes can be of various types like running water, groundwater, glaciers, the wind, waves, and currents, etc.,


A process is a force applied on earth materials affecting the same. An agent is a mobile medium (like running water, moving ice masses, the wind, waves, and currents etc.) which removes, transports and deposits earth materials.


  • They are the movements in the earth’s crust caused by the endogenic or exogenic forces. These movements are also termed as Tectonic movements.
  • The term ‘Tectonic’ derived from the Greek word ‘Tekton’ which means builders.
  • As the word means, these movements are mainly builders and have been responsible for building up of different types of landforms.


  • the energy generating from within the earth is the main force behind the endogenic geomorphic processes.
    The energy genarated due to Radioactivity
  • Rotational Force
  • Tidal Friction
  • Primordial Heat From The Origin Of The Earth.
  • Diastrophism And Volvanism Are Due To Geothermal Grdients And Heat Flow From Within The Earth Crustal Thickness, Strength, Action Of Endogenic Forces Are Due To Variations In Geothermal Gradients And Heat Flow Are Uneven.


Movement of molten rock towards the earth’s surface and also formation of many intrusive and extrusive volcanic forms.
Volcanism: it is the process in which volcanoes takes place Volcanoes are the land forms formed due to volcanic process


They derive their energy from atmosphere determined by the prime source The sun and also gradients created by the tectonic factors. Gravitational force create gradient towards down slope direction.


It is the action of elements of weather on earth materials Weathering is defined as mechanical disintegration and chemical decomposition of rocks through the actions of various element so weather and climate


A group of weathering processes viz; solution , carnonation, hydration , oxidation and reduction asc on the rocks to decompose, dissolve orreduce them to a fine clastic state through chemical reactions by oxygen ,surface /soil water and other acids. Water and air along with heat must be present to speed up all chemical reactions.

Over and above the carbon dioxide present in the air, decomposition of plants and animals increases the quantity of carbon dioxide underground. these chemical reactions on various minerals are very much reactions on various minerals are very much similar to the chemical reactions in a laboratory.

Factors Influencing The Physical Weathering

  • Gravitational Force Overburden Pressure, Load And Shearing Stress
  • Expansion Forces Due To Temperature Changes, Crystal Growth Or Animal Activity
  • Water Pressures Controlled By Wetting And Drying Cycles.

They are mostly due to thermal expansion, and pressure release. The repeated action of these processes cause damage to the rocks


Removal or contribution of ions to the environment due to biological activity is called biological weathering. burrowing and wedging by organism like earthworks tremites, rodents help in exposing the new surfaces to chemical attack and assists in the pentration of moinsture and air..

This article of geomorphology deals with the basics of the subject. It's oneof the most important topics of UPSC 2020 mains and its very important for all the aspirant to have clear idea about this subject. For more articles on geography click here