The Security Council was established by the UN Charter in 1945. It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. India through  non -permanent membership in 2020 is committed to promoting responsible & inclusive solutions to international peace & security and multilateralism. UN is a very important subject in UPSC exams, This article explains the functions and role of the UNSC in world affairs in the context of the IAS Exam.


  • UN Security Council
  • Role of Security Council
  • Members of UNSC


  • The Security Council was established by the UN Charter in 1945.
  • The council is headquartered at NewYork.
  • It is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
  • The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security.
  • It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote.
  • Under the Charter of the United Nations, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.
  • The Security Council takes the lead in determining the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression.
  • It calls upon the parties to a dispute to settle it by peaceful means and recommends methods of adjustment or terms of settlement. In some cases, the Security Council can resort to imposing sanctions or even authorize the use of force to maintain or restore international peace and security.


Under the United Nations Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:

  • to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles and purposes of the United Nations;
  • to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;
  • to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
  • to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
  • to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken;
  • to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
  • to take military action against an aggressor;
  • to recommend the admission of new Members;
  • to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas";
  • to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.


Along with the five permanent members – China, United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, and France – there are 10 non-permanent members who are elected for a two-year term by the General Assembly. As of 2021, the current members are listed below along with the end of term year in brackets:

  • Estonia (2021)
  • India (2022)
  • Ireland (2022)
  • Kenya (2022)
  • Mexico (2022)
  • Niger (2021)
  • Norway (2022)
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (2021)
  • Tunisia (2021)
  • Viet Nam (2021)