DETAILS OF SOCIOLOGY OPTIONAL
Sociology as an optional subject in UPSC Mains is a very popular choice among IAS aspirants. As an IAS officer has to deal with many aspects of thesociety and the knowledge of sociology helps them deal with the issues of the society in a better wayIAS aspirants will notice that there is a major overlap in the syllabus of Sociology and topics from General Studies, so they can prepare for the papers simultaneously. Solving Previous year question paper also helps the candidate get clear idea about the type of questions.
Sociology Optional Books (Paper-I)
- Sociology – Anthony Giddens
- Sociological Theory – George Ritzer
- Sociology – Haralambos & Holborn
- Oxford Dictionary Of Sociology
- Sociological Thought – Francis Abraham and John Henry Morgan
- Political Theory – O P Gauba
Sociology Optional Books (Paper-II)
- Social Change in India – M N Srinivas
- Caste Its Twentieth Century Avatar – M N Srinivas
- Handbook of Indian Sociology – Veena Das
- Indian Society and Culture – Nadeem Hasnain
- Modernization of Indian Tradition – Yogendra Singh
- Persistence and Change in Tribal India – M.V. Rao
- Rural Sociology – Doshi and Jain
- Social Background of Indian Nationalism – A R Desai
PAPER - I
FUNDAMENTALS OF SOCIOLOGY
1. Sociology - The Discipline:
(a) Modernity and social changes in Europe and emergence of Sociology.
(b) Scope of the subject and comparison with other social sciences.
(c) Sociology and common sense.
2. Sociology as Science:
(a) Science, scientific method and critique.
(b) Major theoretical strands of research methodology.
(c) Positivism and its critique.
(d) Fact value and objectivity.
(e) Non-positivist methodologies.
3. Research Methods and Analysis:
(a) Qualitative and quantitative methods.
(b) Techniques of data collection.
(c) Variables, sampling, hypothesis, reliability and validity.
4. Sociological Thinkers:
(a) Karl Marx - Historical materialism, mode of production, alienation, class struggle.
(b) Emile Durkhteim - Division of labour, social fact, suicide, religion and society.
(c) Max Weber - Social action, ideal types, authority, bureaucracy, protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism.
(d) Talcolt Parsons - Social system, pattern variables.
(e) Robert K. Merton - Latent and manifest functions, conformity and deviance, reference groups.
(f) Mead - Self and identity.
5. Stratification and Mobility :
(a) Concepts - equality, inequality, hierarchy, exclusion, poverty and deprivation.
(b) Theories of social stratification - Structural func tionalist theory, Marxist theory, Weberian theory.
(c) Dimensions - Social stratification of class, status groups, gender, ethnicity and race.
(d) Social mobility - open and closed systems, types of mobility, sources and causes of mobility.
6. Works and Economic Life :
(a) Social organization of work in different types of society - slave society, feudal society, industrial capitalist society.
(b) Formal and informal organization of work.
(c) Labour and society.
7. Politics and Society:
(a) Sociological theories of power.
(b) Power elite, bureaucracy, pressure groups and political parties.
(c) Nation, state, citizenship, democracy, civil society, ideology.
(d) Protest, agitation, social movements, collective action, revolution.
8. Religion and Society :
(a) Sociological theories of religion.
(b) Types of religious practices: animism, monism, pluralism, sects, cults.
(c) Religion in modern society: religion and science, secularization, religious revivalism, fundamen talism.
9. Systems of Kinship:
(a) Family, household, marriage.
(b) Types and forms of family.
(c) Lineage and descent.
(d) Patriarchy and sexual division of labour.
(e) Contem porary trends.
10. Social Change in Modern Society :
(a) Sociological theories of social change.
(b) Development and dependency.
(c) Agents of social change.
(d) Education and social change.
(e) Science, technology and social change.
PAPER - II
INDIAN SOCIETY : STRUCTURE AND CHANGE
A. Introducing Indian Society :
(i) Perspectives on the Study of Indian Society :
(a) Indology (G.S. Ghure).
(b) Structural functionalism (M. N. Srinivas).
(c) Marxist sociology (A. R. Desai).
(ii) Impact of colonial rule on Indian society :
(a) Social background of Indian nationalism.
(b) Modernization of Indian tradition.
(c) Protests and movements during the colonial period.
(d) Social reforms.
B. Social Structure:
(i) Rural and Agrarian Social Structure:
(a) The idea of Indian village and village studies.
(b) Agrarian social structure—evolution of land tenure system, land reforms.
(ii) Caste System:
(a) Perspectives on the study of caste systems: G. S. Ghurye, M. N. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille.
(b) Features of caste system.
(c) Untouchability-forms and perspectives
(iii) Tribal Communities in India:
(a) Definitional problems.
(b) Geographical spread.
(c) Colonial policies and tribes.
(d) Issues of integration and autonomy.
(iv) Social Classes in India:
(a) Agrarian class structure.
(b) Industrial class structure.
(c) Middle classes in India.
(v) Systems of Kinship in India:
(a) Lineage and descent in India.
(b) Types of kinship systems.
(c) Family and marriage in India.
(d) Household dimensions of the family.
(e) Patriarchy, entitlements and sexual division of labour.
(vi) Religion and Society :
(a) Religious communities in India.
(b) Problems of religious minorities.
C. Social Changes in India:
(i) Visions of Social Change in India:
(a) Idea of development planning and mixed economy.
(b) Constitution, law and social change.
(c) Education and social change.
(ii) Rural and Agrarian Transformation in India:
(a) Programmes of rural development, Community Development Programme, cooperatives, poverty alleviation schemes.
(b) Green revolution and social change.
(c) Changing modes of production in Indian agriculture.
(d) Problems of rural labour, bondage, migration.
(iii) Industrialization and Urbanisation in India:
(a) Evolution of modern industry in India.
(b) Growth of urban settlements in India.
(c) Working class: structure, growth, class mobilization.
(d) Informal sector, child labour.
(e) Slums and deprivation in urban areas.
(iv) Politics and Society :
(a) Nation, democracy and citizenship.
(b) Political parties, pressure groups, social and political elite.
(c) Regionalism and decentralization of power.
(v) Social Movements in Modern India :
(a) Peasants and farmers movements.
(b) Women’s movement.
(c) Backward classes & Dalit movements.
(d) Environmental movements.
(e) Ethnicity and Identity movements.
(vi) Population Dynamics :
(a) Population size, growth, composition and distribution.
(b) Components of population growth: birth, death, migration.
(c) Population Policy and family planning.
(d) Emerging issues: ageing, sex ratios, child and infant mortality, reproductive health.
(vii) Challenges of Social Transformation :
(a) Crisis of development : displacement, environmental problems and sustainability.
(b) Poverty, deprivation and inequalities.
(c) Violence against women.
(d) Caste conflicts.
(e) Ethnic conflicts, communalism, religious revivalism.
(f) Illiteracy and disparities in education.
Sociology Optional: Advantages
- Sociology has a short syllabus.
- It is very easy to understand and is scoring too.
- It is a social science and is popular with humanities students. Since it is easy to understand, even science background students can attempt it safely.
- It helps with the essay paper since generally at least one essay is asked on social issues. It will also help in the interview round. Sociology also helps in the ethics paper.
- It is interesting especially if social issues matter to you. It helps you understand society and its myriad layers and functioning.
- There is overlap with General Studies Paper I.
Sociology Optional: Disadvantages
- It does not have the same scoring potential as other subjects like Geography
- Candidates need to think before writing as to which opinion should be presented and which should be withheld.
- It requires the candidate to be well versed with Current Affairs more than what is needed for General Studies.